Github is the world’s largest host of source code in the world with more than 57 million repositories. The site also has 26 million users as of March 2017. Software engineers and programmers actively use Gitbub to post projects and to collaborate in teams using versions control. It’s interesting to ask where do these programmers live – who and where is the user base on the site?
The map above displays the percentage of Github users by country and commits per country. The United States comprises 31% of Github’s users and 35% of Github commits. The next largest country is the United Kingdom with 6% of users and 7% of commits. Followed by Germany (5%, 6%) and China (6%, 5%). The top ten countries compose 70% of the users and over 70% of the commits. They are: US, UK, Germany, China, France, Brazil, Canada, India, Russia, and Japan.
In the largest and most competitive tech companies, the average tenure by employees is approximately two years. The chart above displays the average number of years an employee spent working for various large tech companies.
Above is a map displaying the online world, that is, each country’s size on the map represents the number of websites registered to each country code top-level domain (ccTLD). What is clear is there is a large concentration of internet activity in a small number of countries – as of June 2017 there were 302 global ccTLD, the top 10 (shown above) compose 64.8% of all ccTLD domain name registrations.
Two other things jump out from the map above:
First, why is Tokelau (.tk), a New Zealand territory in the south Pacific – a county with a population of 1,499 people – second in the world with 19.1 million domain name registrations? Tokelau has specialized in web hosting by allowing any individual or business to register any number of domain names free of charge with very minimal restrictions or oversight. These policies have lead .tk domains to have a bad reputation. According to a 2011 report by the Anti-Phishing Working Group, .tk domains were involved in ~21.5% of all phishing attacks in the second half of 2010 internet-wide.
Second, why is the .us ccTLD not among the world’s largest? The United States is such an internet world power that most of its the first websites were already registered and growing their brand on Generic top-level domains (gTLD) before ccTLD domains were developed and extended for country-specific use. Americans are more familiar with gTLDs such as: .com, .org, .net, .info, .gov, .edu, and .mil – and have been low to transfer to the ccTLD .us. To have a more accurate picture of the internet world map – as of 2017, across all gTLDs, there were 331.0 million registered domains and only considering .com, .net, .org, and .info (the top 4 gTLDs combined) there are 160.6 million registered domains. Compare that with .cn (China’s top domain) the second most used domain in the world with only 21.4 million. The graph below displays the top ten domains, both ccTLD and gTLD combined – the US has four of the top ten in the world (all gTLD).
Above is a bar chart displaying the number of research papers published each year on Deep Learning. Two trends are noticeable: One, Deep Learning/Artificial Intelligence research is on the rise across all the most advanced nations in the world and, Two, China and the US are far outpacing the nearest competitor countries. There is also an A.I. patent battle underway being waged mostly in Silicon Valley (Apple, Facebook, Google) and Seattle (Amazon, Microsoft).
(Graphics from MIT Technology Review 2017)
Even though President Trump withdrew the United States Federal Government from the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, it doesn’t prevent US States or cities from continuing to uphold the agreement. So far, 13 states have committed to Paris Agreement and ~300 cities (including the all of the top 10 largest cities: NYC, LA, Chicago, Houston, Phoenix, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego, Dallas, and San Jose). The map above displays the US states that are currently still in the Paris agreement in blue and the states considering joining the group in green. This group (in blue) made up 32.3% of the US population and 37.6% of US GDP in 2016. Roughly speaking, it can be said that 1/3 of the United States is still part of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. The map below displays the cities in the agreement (in red) and the USCA in green (as of June 1).
According to this map, the ‘digital age’ began in 2002 when digital storage overtook analog storage in market share. From 2002 to 2007, digital storage share grew from 50% to 94%! Today, that figure is well over 99%.
The subscription growth of Netflix over the past 5 has been stunning, especially when you consider the performance of its competitor: cable. As of the fourth quarter in 2016, Netflix now has more subscribers than total cable subscribers – growing from under 25 million in 2012 to nearly 50 million by 2016. Note that these figures only include US domestic subscribers, not global users. Global subscribers are expected to rise as Netflix expanded into new markets in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe (pictured in the graphic below). It seems that people are not watching less TV, rather watching it through a different and more mobile friendly medium.
The above graphic displays price changes for various items over the last 20 years – 1996 through 2016. Overall inflation was 55% over the period (about 2.7% annually not factoring compounding). What is striking is how much technology prices have fallen while medical and tuition cost have soared well over inflation rates. Tuition costs have increased on average at 3.7 times the rate of inflation and medical costs at about 2 times inflation. Meanwhile, various technologies as decreased in relative cost. As overall prices have increased annually at around 2.7%, Wireless Service has decreased in price by 2.3% per year, Software is down 3.3% per year, and TV’s are down 4.8% per year. Housing and Food costs have remained on par with inflation year by year.
The bar chart on the left displays the number of technology related jobs per 1000 jobs for select cities. The bar chart on the right displays the median house price for the same cities on the left. What jumps out from this comparison is how expensive house prices are in the Bay Area compared with other tech centers around the country. Despite having roughly the same number of tech related jobs (7.9% and 7.6%) home prices in San Francisco are more than two and a half times more expensive than homes in Seattle (1.2 million compared with 430k). Another finding is that even if cities have a higher fraction of their laborforce working in tech jobs, most cities in this sample do not have home prices far above the US Average.
Facebook, LinkedIn, and Salesforce are tech companies with the youngest median employees age, each below 30 years old. Compare that to older tech companies (both in terms of company age and employee age) such as IBM, Oracle, and HP – each with median employee ages older than 37 years.